Charles Hodge writes in his Systematic Theology:
“Whatever God foreordains, must certainly come to pass.
The distinction between the efficient (or efficacious) and the
permissive decrees of God, although important, has no relation to the
certainty of events. All events embrace in the purpose of God are
equally certain, whether He has determined to bring them to pass by his
own power, or simply to permit their occurrence through the agency of
his creatures. It was no less certain from eternity that Satan would
tempt our first parents, and that they would fall, than that God would
send his Son to die for sinners. The distinction in question has
reference only to the relation which events bear to the efficiency of
God. Some things He purposes to do, others He decrees to permit to be
done. He effects good, He permits evil. He is the author of the one, but
not of the other” (Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology, Vol. 1, pp. 540-541, Hendrickson publishers).
Charles Hodge regurgitates the unbiblical, idolatrous, and traditionally Calvinistic figment of a "permissive decree." Let us take God's Hammer to Hodge's hubris.
"Rise up; pull up [stakes] and cross over the Arnon River; behold, I have given Sihon the king of Heshbon, the Amorite, and his land into your hand. Begin to possess, and stir yourselves up against him in battle. Today I will begin to put your dread and your fear on the face of the people under all the heavens, who will hear your fame, and will tremble and writhe because of you. And I sent messengers from the wilderness of Kedemoth to Sihon the king of Heshbon [with] words of peace, saying, Let me pass on the highway through your land; I will go on the highway; I will not turn aside [to] the right or the left; you shall sell me food for silver, and I shall eat; and you shall give me water for silver, and I will drink. Only, let me pass through on my feet, as the sons of Esau who live in Seir, and the Moabites who live in Ar, have done to me, until I have crossed over the Jordan, to the land which Jehovah our God [is] giving to us. And Sihon the king of Heshbon was not willing to let us pass by him, for Jehovah your God had hardened his spirit, and had emboldened his heart, so as to give him into your hand, as [it is] this day" (Deuteronomy 2:24-30).
"And Joshua made war many days with all those kings. There was not
a city that made peace with the sons of Israel except the Hivites, [ones]
living in Gibeon. They took all in battle. For it was of Jehovah to harden
their hearts, so that they should come against Israel in battle, so that they
might be destroyed, so that they might have no favor, but that He might destroy
them, as Jehovah commanded Moses" (Joshua 11:18-20).
Is God simply permitting the occurrence of hardened hearts and spirits? Or, is God efficiently and efficaciously hardening hearts and spirits? Is God simply permitting hearts and spirits to harden all by themselves? Clearly God is actively and efficiently hardening hearts and spirits -- there is nothing permissive here in God's dealings with Sion and those who came against Israel in battle.
"And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of
Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath-pilneser, king of Assyria, and he exiled
them; even the Reubenites; and the Gadites; and the half tribe of Manasseh. And
he brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the Gozan River, to this
day" (1 Chronicles 5:26).
"And Jehovah awakened the spirit of the Philistines against
Jehoram, and of the Arabians who [were] beside the Ethiopians; and they
came up into Judah and broke into it, and captured all the substance that was
found at the king's house, and also his sons, and his wives; and there was not
left to him a son except Jehoahaz the youngest of his sons" (2 Chronicles 21:16-17).
"And in the first year of Cyrus the king of Persia, in order
to accomplish the Word of Jehovah in the mouth of Jeremiah, Jehovah awakened
the spirit of Cyrus the king of Persia, and he caused a voice to pass
throughout all his kingdom, and also in writing, saying, So says Cyrus the
king of Persia, Jehovah the God of the heavens has given to me all the kingdoms
of the earth, and He has laid a charge on me to build a house in Jerusalem to
Him, that is in Judah. Who is among you of all His people? May Jehovah his God
[be] with him, and let him go up" (2 Chronicles 36:22-23).
"Behold! I stir up the Medes against them, who shall not value silver.
And they shall not delight in gold" (Isaiah 13:17).
Did God awaken or stir up certain men by His power, or did He simply permit them to awaken and stir up themselves? These questions are rhetorical and clear to those without Hodge's vainglorious agenda to magnify himself over the One moving him (Isaiah 10:5-15).
"He turned their heart to hate His people, to deal craftily with His
servants" (Psalm 105:25).
Let us apply Psalm 105:25 to the hubris of Charles Hodge. God TURNED Charles Hodge's heart to HATE His absolute sovereignty. From eternity God decreed that Charles Hodge would pen this hubris. In time God efficiently, efficaciously, and actively caused Charles Hodge to do this.
So, who is the author of Hodge's hubris? It depends on how "author" is defined. The ultimate metaphysical author is obviously God since axes, saws, rods, and staffs are not able to lift or raise what is not wood, contrary to Hodge's assertions (see Isaiah 10:15). And just as obviously, Charles Hodge is the morally culpable and accountable author since he has sinned in blurring the creature-Creator distinction by believing the devil's lie, "You shall be as God."